It is currently unknown if universes with different logic and mathematics could exist as our understanding of logic and mathematics is based on our observations and scientific discoveries in our own universe.

## So let’s look deeper

It is currently unknown whether or not universes with different logic and mathematics could exist as our understanding of these concepts is based on our observations and scientific discoveries in our own universe. However, there are several intriguing ideas and theories surrounding this topic.

One theory suggests that if the laws of logic and mathematics were to be different in another universe, those universes may not be able to support life as we know it. Theoretical physicist Max Tegmark explains, “It might seem as though any universe that could support life must have the same mathematical structure as ours, simply because such a universe must contain organisms capable of discovering and interacting with that structure.”

Another idea is that different universes could exist with their own unique logic and mathematical systems. Philosopher and logician Saul Kripke proposes that “the actual world is not the only logically possible world. There are other imaginable worlds, each with its own species of necessity and possibility.”

It’s also interesting to note that our understanding of logic and mathematics has evolved throughout the ages. For example, some ancient civilizations used a base-60 numeral system instead of the base-10 system that is used today. This raises the possibility that different civilizations in different universes may have developed their own unique systems of math and logic.

While it may never be possible to directly observe or interact with other universes, the prospect of their existence and the idea of different systems of logic and mathematics is a fascinating and thought-provoking topic that continues to inspire scientific and philosophical inquiry.

Fact | Description |
---|---|

Gödel’s Incompleteness Theorem | Proves that there are mathematical statements which cannot be proven in a given system. |

Non-Euclidean Geometry | Shows that parallel lines can intersect in certain curved spaces, challenging Euclid’s original geometrical axioms. |

Myhill’s Anti-machine Hypothesis | Suggests that it is impossible to build a machine that can correctly identify all strings in a language. |

Boolean Algebra | Created a system of mathematical logic based on binary digits. |

Philosophy of Mathematics | Explores the nature of mathematical reasoning and the foundations of mathematical language and thought. |

In summary, the ultimate answer to whether or not different universes with different logic and mathematics could exist remains a mystery. However, there are several intriguing theories and ideas surrounding the topic that continue to inspire scientific and philosophical inquiry. As philosopher Ludwig Wittgenstein once said, “The limits of my language means the limits of my world.”

## Video answer to “Could universes with different logic and mathematics exist?”

This video discusses the debate between those who believe that mathematics is discovered, and those who believe that it is invented. The video provides examples of how mathematics has been used to solve problems in the real world.

## There are other opinions on the Internet

No. Consider the chain: laws of physics are based on math, math is based on logic. Sure but

there can only be one form of logic otherwise there can be no math either. As that’s the case all physics has to be logical.

Yes and no. Mathematics and logic are not exactly empirical, so universes with different laws can be accomodated (perhaps not most naturally) by the same mathematics and logic, see Is Logic Empirical? and Is geometry mathematical or empirical?

Yes, we live in one. What was regarded as mathematics 2000 years ago is not what we regard as mathematics today. Gauss published the first acceptable proof of the Fundamental Theorem of Algebra; but Gauss’s proof would not be acceptable from an undergrad today. Standards of rigor, as well as our understanding of the topology of the real line, have changed considerably since then.

Mathematics is a historically-contingent activity of humans. Not only could mathematics be different on a different planet or in another universe; which are of course unprovable one way or the other; but mathematics could and actually has been different at different eras on this planet.

Just consider the rise of computers, experimental mathematics, machine proof systems, and computatibility theory. It’s likely that math in 100 years will be very different than math is now. Zermelo-Fraenkel set theory is less than 100 years old. What if on some other planet they never discovered it, but rather skipped to some…

## Furthermore, people are interested

Simply so, **Can math be different in another universe?** Mathematics is a historically-contingent activity of humans. **Not only could mathematics be different on a different planet or in another universe**; which are of course unprovable one way or the other; but mathematics could and actually has been different at different eras on this planet.

**Can the universe exist without mathematics?** Response will be: It’s true that mathematics enables us to quantitatively describe the Universe, it’s an incredibly useful tool when applied properly. But the Universe is a physical, not mathematical entity, and there’s a big difference between the two.

**Could there be universes with different laws of physics?**

In reply to that: The ultimate multiverse contains every mathematically possible universe under different laws of physics.

**Can a universe exist without logic?**

No part of the universe is illogical, NOT because it all must make sense, but because it all is possible, as it happens.

Subsequently, **Are mathematics and logic the same?** Response will be: **Yes and no**. Mathematics and logic are not exactly empirical, so universes with different laws can be accomodated (perhaps not most naturally) by the same mathematics and logic, see Is Logic Empirical? and Is geometry mathematical or empirical?

Accordingly, **Is our universe a multiverse?**

Answer will be: Recent discoveries in physics and astronomy, he says, point to the idea that our universe **may be one of many universes populating a grander multiverse**. "You almost can’t avoid having some version of the multiverse in your studies if you push deeply enough in the mathematical descriptions of the physical universe," he says.

People also ask, **Why do we assume Maths can be used in the whole universe?**

Because Mathematics is entirely independent of the universe. In particular it is independent of location so, if it can be used anywhere in the universe, it can be used everywhere. in modelling the universe is much more debatable.

Then, **Is our universe a pattern or a mathematical structure?**

By definition, the vast structure of super-reality that is inaccessible to our own universe exists only for that super-reality, lying forever hidden beyond our own horizon. In this paper, we support the case proposed by others that our universe is, fundamentally, a pattern, a mathematical structure.

Correspondingly, **Are mathematics and logic the same?** Yes and no. Mathematics and logic are not exactly empirical, so universes with different laws can be accomodated (perhaps not most naturally) by the same mathematics and logic, see Is Logic Empirical? and Is geometry mathematical or empirical?

**What is a universe in mathematics?**

In reply to that: In mathematics, and particularly in set theory, category theory, type theory, and the foundations of mathematics, a universe is **a collection that contains all the entities one wishes to consider in a given situation**. In set theory, universes are often classes that contain (as elements) all sets for which one hopes to prove a particular theorem.

Also, **Are multiple universes possible?** The reply will be: That mysterious process of inflation and the Big Bang have convinced some researchers that multiple universes are possible, or even very likely. According to theoretical physicist Alexander Vilenkin of Tufts University in Massachusetts, inflation didn’t end everywhere at the same time.

Just so, **Do we live in a mathematical world?** As a response to this: Yes, we live in one. What was regarded as mathematics 2000 years ago is not what we regard as mathematics today. Gauss published the first acceptable proof of the Fundamental Theorem of Algebra; but Gauss’s proof would not be acceptable from an undergrad today.