Muslims did not invent calculus, although some scholars in the Islamic Golden Age made significant contributions to the development of mathematics and algebra.

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While Muslims did not invent calculus, they did make significant contributions to the development of mathematics and algebra during the Islamic Golden Age. This period, which lasted from the 8th to the 14th century, saw an explosion in scientific and philosophical thought in the Islamic world.

One of the most notable figures in Islamic mathematics was the Persian polymath al-Khwarizmi, who lived in the 9th century. He is considered the father of algebra, having written a book called “Al-Kitab al-mukhtasar fi hisab al-jabr wal-muqabala” (The Compendious Book on Calculation by Completion and Balancing) in which he discussed methods for solving quadratic equations.

Another influential Islamic mathematician was Abu Rayhan al-Biruni, who lived in the 11th century. He was the first person to write about trigonometry as a distinct field of mathematics, and he made significant contributions to the study of astronomy and geography.

While many Muslim scholars made important contributions to mathematics and science during the Islamic Golden Age, it is important to remember that these advances were built upon the work of earlier civilizations. As the historian Bernard Lewis has noted, “Islamic civilization was an heir and a transmitter, not a creator.”

Here is a table outlining some of the notable contributions made by Muslim scholars to the development of mathematics:

Mathematician | Contribution |
---|---|

al-Khwarizmi | Father of algebra; pioneered the study of algorithms and methods for solving quadratic equations |

Abu Rayhan al-Biruni | First person to write about trigonometry as a distinct field of mathematics |

Al-Hasan Ibn al-Haytham | Developed the concept of mathematical models and made important contributions to optics |

Omar Khayyam | Developed a geometrical method for solving cubic equations |

In conclusion, while Muslims did not invent calculus, they made significant contributions to the development of mathematics and algebra during the Islamic Golden Age. As the historian Howard Eves has noted, “The Islamic mathematicians…deserve high credit for having raised algebra to that high plateau where it could serve mathematics effectively as a new technique.”

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The word “algorithm” stems from the name of a Persian mathematician and scholar, Muhammad ibn Musa al-Khwarizmi. Al-Khwarizmi was a director in the House of Wisdom and made significant contributions to mathematics, astronomy, geography, and cartography. He introduced Hindu-Arabic numerals to the West and contributed to maths by showing how complex problems could be broken down into simpler parts and solved. This paved the way for the computer age, as the principles of algorithms became the foundation for modern computing.

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The 10th Century Persian mathematician Muhammad Al-Karaji worked to extend algebra still further, freeing it from its geometrical heritage, and introduced the theory of algebraic calculus.

Muslim scholars made significant contributions to mathematics during the golden age of Muslim learning from the 7th to the 13th century. They invented the present arithmetical decimal system and the fundamental operations connected with it, including addition, subtraction, multiplication, division, exponentiation, and extracting the root. They also introduced the concept of ‘zero’ to the world. However, Muhammad ibn Musa al-Khwarizmi, a Persian scholar in the House of Wisdom in Baghdad, is known as the founder of algebra, along with the Greek mathematician Diophantus.

The 7th to the 13th century was the golden age of Muslim learning. In mathematics they contributed and invented the present arithmetical decimal system and the fundamental operations connected with it: addition, subtraction, multiplication, division, exponentiation, and extracting the root. They also introduced the ‘zero’ concept to the world.

Muhammad ibn Musa al-Khwarizmi, a Persian scholar in the House of Wisdom in Baghdad was the founder of algebra, is along with the Greek mathematician Diophantus, known as the father of algebra.

They did not invent algebra either. Approximately 2,200 years before Mohammed was born, Ahmes wrote the Rhind papyrus, which described the Egyptian mathematics system and their methods of multiplication, division, and algebra (albeit in simple equations). He was followed by Thales, Pythagorus, Euclid, Archimedes, Erasasthenes,Ptolemy, Diophantus (known as “the father of algebra”), Pappus, and Aryabhata the Elder, created or documented the Indian numerical system, which used the decimal system and the symbols 1 through 9 and 0.

About 820 A.D., Muhammad Ibn Musa al-Khwarizmi, a Muslim from an area now called Uzbekistan,translated the work of Aryabhata into Arabic. The Indian numerical system, which the Arab mathematician called Hindustat, Arabs renamed to “Hindu-Arabic” numerical system and later they removed all references to hindu Then to the Arabic number system after al-Khwarizmi’s work was translated into Latin. It was eventually accepted as the European standard. Much of al-Khwari…

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*the present arithmetical decimal system*and the fundamental operations connected with it – addition, subtraction, multiplication, division, raising to a power, and extracting the square root and the cubic root.

*mathematical projects*: the completion of arithmetic algorithms, the development of algebra, and the extension of geometry.

*they weren’t capable of inventing or discovering calculus*. The body of mathematics we know as calculus developed over many centuries in many different parts of the world, not just western Europe but also ancient Greece, the Middle East, India, China, and Japan.

*Isaac Newton and Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz*independently of each other. An argument over priority led to the Leibniz–Newton calculus controversy which continued until the death of Leibniz in 1716.

*Greek mathematics*( Euclid, Archimedes, Apollonius) and Indian mathematics ( Aryabhata, Brahmagupta ).

*they weren’t capable of inventing or discovering calculus*. The body of mathematics we know as calculus developed over many centuries in many different parts of the world, not just western Europe but also ancient Greece, the Middle East, India, China, and Japan.

**Interesting Facts**

**Interesting:**Al-Khwarizmi is one of the most famous astronomers, geologist, and mathematician at the time of the Golden Era of Muslims. He is also the inventor of many mathematical methods and a branch of math, called Algebra. Furthermore, he was the first to use decimals to express the fractions.

**You knew that,**Al-Khwārizmī’s teachings are considered the foundations and cornerstone of the sciences and influenced millions of learned men throughout the world. During the late Medieval period, his work on arithmetic and astronomy contributed to the system of education made up of the Seven Liberal Arts.

**Thematic fact:**Ever since he made his name present in every math book, al-Khwārizmī became one of the most popular figures in Arabic history. He was mentioned by almost every single media outlet that existed. So what’s new? The importance of his work does not lie in what he did twelve centuries ago, but to the methods he applied to produce such results.