# How did islam use mathematics?

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Islam used mathematics to advance fields such as astronomy, architecture, and navigation. They also made significant contributions to algebra and trigonometry.

## For those who are interested in more details

Islam has a long-standing history of using mathematics in a variety of ways. One of the most significant ways in which Islam used mathematics was by making contributions to fields such as astronomy, architecture, and navigation. Mathematics played an essential role in enabling Muslims to chart the stars, calculate lunar phases, and determine the direction of Mecca for prayer accurately.

Islam also made significant contributions to the development of algebra and trigonometry. One of the most critical figures in this area was the Persian scholar al-Khwarizmi, who is often credited with inventing algebra. In his work “Al-Jabr,” al-Khwarizmi introduced systematic methods for solving equations, including quadratic equations.

Another renowned Muslim mathematician is the Persian mathematician Omar Khayyam, whom the West most commonly recognizes as a poet, but in the East, he is known primarily for his mathematical contributions. Omar Khayyam developed a geometric solution to cubic equations, which was later generalized by mathematicians such as Cardan and Tartaglia.

As an example of how mathematics was applied in Islamic architecture, we can look at some of the most iconic Islamic structures, such as the Alhambra in Granada, Spain. Built in the 14th century, the Alhambra features intricate geometric patterns that repeat endlessly, forming a complex interplay of shapes and designs.

Thabit ibn Qurra, an Assyrian mathematician, astronomer, and philosopher from Harran in Mesopotamia, made a significant contribution to the Arabic and Islamic sciences by translating works from Greek mathematical and scientific tradition into Arabic.

As stated by Yusuf al-Qaradawi, a renowned Islamic scholar, “Mathematics is the language of science, and algebra is the language of mathematics.” This statement emphasizes the importance of mathematics in scientific fields and how vital it has been in Islamic achievements.

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In conclusion, Islam has certainly utilized mathematics in several areas, such as astronomy, architecture, and navigation. Additionally, the Muslim mathematicians’ contributions to algebra and trigonometry have been groundbreaking and shaped the foundations of modern mathematics.

Name Accomplishments
Al-Khwarizmi Introduced systematic methods for solving equations, including quadratic equations
Omar Khayyam Developed a geometric solution to cubic equations
Thabit ibn Qurra Translated works from Greek mathematical and scientific tradition into Arabic

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The word “algorithm” stems from the name of a Persian mathematician and scholar, Muhammad ibn Musa al-Khwarizmi. Al-Khwarizmi was a director in the House of Wisdom and made significant contributions to mathematics, astronomy, geography, and cartography. He introduced Hindu-Arabic numerals to the West and contributed to maths by showing how complex problems could be broken down into simpler parts and solved. This paved the way for the computer age, as the principles of algorithms became the foundation for modern computing.

Muslim mathematicians invented the present arithmetical decimal system and the fundamental operations connected with it – addition, subtraction, multiplication, division, raising to a power, and extracting the square root and the cubic root.

Specifically, they invented the algebra that most learn in school today, made significant advances in the field of trigonometry, and helped form a synthesis of mathematical ideas, fusing the best of Greek mathematics with important Hindu and Persian concepts to create a mathematical structure that was far grander than what they had inherited.

The 7th to the 13th century was the golden age of Muslim learning. In mathematics they contributed and invented the present arithmetical decimal system and the fundamental operations connected with it: addition, subtraction, multiplication, division, exponentiation, and extracting the root. They also introduced the ‘zero’ concept to the world.

Islamic scientists in the 10th century were involved in three major mathematical projects: the completion of arithmetic algorithms, the development of algebra, and the extension of geometry.

A systematic study of methods for solving quadratic equations constituted a central concern of Islamic mathematicians. A no less central contribution was related to the Islamic reception and transmission of ideas related to the Indian system of numeration, to which they added decimal fractions (fractions such as 0.125, or 1/8).

## More interesting questions on the issue

Accordingly, How was math used in Islam?
Answer will be: Mathematics in the 10th century
Islamic scientists in the 10th century were involved in three major mathematical projects: the completion of arithmetic algorithms, the development of algebra, and the extension of geometry.

What number did Islam contribute to the field of mathematics?
IN MATHEMATICS:
The Muslims developed the symbol for zero and they systematized the numbers into the decimal system – base 10.

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Also asked, How did Islam contribute to geometry?
Answer: The great philosopher Abū Naṣr al‐Fārābī (ca. 870–950) proposed many geometric constructions of parabolas, regular polygons, squares equal to three given equal squares, constructions with one opening of the compass, and constructions on the sphere.

Correspondingly, Where were the Islamic advances in mathematics? In reply to that: The Islamic Empire established across Persia, the Middle East, Central Asia, North Africa, Iberia and parts of India from the 8th Century onwards made significant contributions towards mathematics. They were able to draw on and fuse together the mathematical developments of both Greece and India.

How did Islamic mathematics help solve a problem? In particular, Islamic mathematics allowed, and indeed encouraged, the unrestricted combination of commensurable and incommensurable magnitudes within the same framework, as well as the simultaneous manipulation of magnitudes of different dimensions as part of the solution of a problem.

Correspondingly, What mathematics was used in the Golden Age of Islam? A page from The Compendious Book on Calculation by Completion and Balancing by Al-Khwarizmi Mathematics during the Golden Age of Islam, especially during the 9th and 10th centuries, was built on Greek mathematics ( Euclid, Archimedes, Apollonius) and Indian mathematics ( Aryabhata, Brahmagupta ).

Beside above, Is philosophy of mathematics an independent discipline in the medieval Islamic world?
As a response to this: Putting these scattered engagements together, it becomes clear that although philosophy of mathematics has never been treated as an independent discipline in the medieval Islamic world, Muslim thinkers came up with very interesting and profound ideas, insights, and arguments about at least some philosophical issues related to mathematics.

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Additionally, What arithmetic system did Islam use? Response: The third system was Indian arithmetic, whose basic numeral forms, complete with the zero, eastern Islam took over from the Hindus. (Different forms of the numerals, whose origins are not entirely clear, were used in western Islam.)

Regarding this, How did Islamic mathematics help solve a problem? In particular, Islamic mathematics allowed, and indeed encouraged, the unrestricted combination of commensurable and incommensurable magnitudes within the same framework, as well as the simultaneous manipulation of magnitudes of different dimensions as part of the solution of a problem.

What mathematics was used in the Golden Age of Islam?
Answer will be: A page from The Compendious Book on Calculation by Completion and Balancing by Al-Khwarizmi Mathematics during the Golden Age of Islam, especially during the 9th and 10th centuries, was built on Greek mathematics ( Euclid, Archimedes, Apollonius) and Indian mathematics ( Aryabhata, Brahmagupta ).

Just so, What arithmetic system did Islam use?
Answer to this: The third system was Indian arithmetic, whose basic numeral forms, complete with the zero, eastern Islam took over from the Hindus. (Different forms of the numerals, whose origins are not entirely clear, were used in western Islam.)

In this manner, Is philosophy of mathematics an independent discipline in the medieval Islamic world?
As a response to this: Putting these scattered engagements together, it becomes clear that although philosophy of mathematics has never been treated as an independent discipline in the medieval Islamic world, Muslim thinkers came up with very interesting and profound ideas, insights, and arguments about at least some philosophical issues related to mathematics.

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