Muslim scholars in the Middle Ages made significant contributions to the field of mathematics, including the development of algebra, advancements in geometry, and the establishment of the decimal system.
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Muslim scholars in the Middle Ages made remarkable contributions to the field of mathematics, which laid the groundwork for modern mathematics. One of the most significant contributions was the development of algebra, which is derived from the Arabic word ‘aljabr,’ coined by the Muslim mathematician AlKhwarizmi. Along with algebra, Muslim mathematicians also made significant advancements in geometry, which showed the relevance and practicability of mathematical concepts. These contributions established the decimal system and paved the way for future mathematical progress.
According to David Eugene Smith, a renowned mathematician, historian, and educator, “The arabic system of numeration is the most ingenious of all numeration systems devised by man. The Arabs themselves were content to use it almost without change in their sciences, which had need of accuracy to the highest possible degree.”
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The Muslim mathematician AlKhwarizmi wrote the book “Kitab alJabr walMuqabala,” which introduced the concept of algebra and cemented his reputation as the “father of algebra.”

The decimal system was developed in the Middle East in the 9th century, replacing other systems based on units of 60 or 12.

The Persian mathematician Omar Khayyam, known for his poetry, also made significant advances in mathematics, including the study of cubic equations.

An important work of Islamic mathematics is the “Canon of Medicine,” by Avicenna, which was used as a medical reference for centuries.
A table showcasing famous Muslim mathematicians and their contributions:
Mathematician  Contributions 

AlKhwarizmi  Algebra, algorithms, trigonometry, geography 
Omar Khayyam  Geometry, algebra, astronomy, poetry 
AlBiruni  Trigonometry, astrolabe, geodesy, linguistics 
Alhazen  Optics, astronomy, mathematics, physics 
Ibn alHaytham  Optics, visual perception, scientific method 
Jabir ibn Hayyan  Chemistry, alchemy, philosophy 
Abu Rayhan alBiruni  History, geography, mathematics, astronomy 
Muhammad ibn Musa AlKhwarizmi  Arabic numerals, algebra, algorithms, trigonometry, geography 
In conclusion, Muslim scholars played a significant role in the development of mathematics during the Middle Ages, contributing to algebra, geometry, and the establishment of the decimal system. Their discoveries have influenced the field of mathematics in various ways, shaping our understanding of numerical concepts.
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The Muslim community made significant contributions in the medieval times in various sectors spanning from philosophy, medicine, mathematics, architecture, agriculture, music, language, to education. The Islamic civilization was majorly felt in Europe between 11th century and 13th century. Islamic civilization has greatly contributed to the development of Western civilization as well as thew achievements of renaissance. Below are a few of the notable categories in which the muslim world exerted their sphere of influence. Mathematics Muslim scholars developed several mathematical concepts and applications which have greatly influenced various sectoral areas between the 7th and 13th century. Among the discoveries are the decimal system, and fundamental operations connected with addition, subtraction, division and multiplication. Muhammad Ibn Musa AlKhwarizmi, born in the 780CE, is famously regarded as the father of Algebra. He was summoned to Baghdad by AlMamun and appointed court astr…
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The Islamic Golden Age saw significant contributions to the development of the scientific method, with scientists such as Ḥasan Ibn alHaytham and Abu Rayhan alBiruni introducing the ideas of positivism and induction to scientific methodology. Islamic mathematicians made advancements in algebra, spherical law, and the numerical system, with alKhwārizmī serving as the origin of the term ‘algorithm.’ Islamic physicists developed concepts such as reaction, acceleration, and impetus, while optics saw developments in the refraction of light and the use of lenses. Astronomy, geography, cartography, chemistry, and biology also saw significant progress during this time. Lastly, the Islamic Golden Age brought about an agricultural revolution, prompting advancements in farming, irrigation, and the study of animal parts and the human body.
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Similarly, What math did Muslims develop?
The reply will be: The most important contribution may be the invention of algebra, which originated in Baghdad in the House of Wisdom (bayt alhikma). The House of Wisdom was primarily a library and a place for translation and research.
Also Know, What are the contributions of the medieval Islamicate in mathematics?
Arabic scholars translated the works of the great Indian mathematicians and, in doing so, adopted their notation system: ten symbols 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, and 0. [18] These formed the foundation of the new wave of mathematic exploration and they would go on to replace the abacus.
What did Muslims contribute during the Middle Ages?
During the High Middle Ages, the Islamic world was at its cultural peak, supplying information and ideas to Europe, via AlAndalus, Sicily and the Crusader kingdoms in the Levant. These included Latin translations of the Greek Classics and of Arabic texts in astronomy, mathematics, science, and medicine.
What did Arabic contribute to mathematics?
In mathematics, the Arab cipher, or zero, made workable the solution of complicated mathematical problems. The Arab numeral, an improvement on the original Hindu invention, and the Arab decimal system made simpler and more flexible the course of science.