The Arabs influenced mathematics in European universities by introducing new mathematical concepts and ideas, including algebra, Arabic numerals, and the decimal system.

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The Arabs had a significant impact on the development of mathematics in European universities during the Middle Ages. They introduced new mathematical concepts and ideas that laid the foundation for modern mathematics. According to an article in the Encyclopaedia Britannica, “Arabic mathematicians were primarily responsible for widespread knowledge of Indian numerals, which European mathematicians first began to use in the 12th century.”

One of the most significant contributions of the Arabs to mathematics was the introduction of algebra, which they based on the work of earlier Indian and Greek mathematicians. The word “algebra” itself is derived from the Arabic word “al-jabr,” which means “reunion of broken parts.” The Arabs also developed the Arabic numerals that we use today, which are based on the Hindu-Arabic numeral system.

The decimal system was another concept that the Arabs introduced to the Europeans. They also developed trigonometry and spherical geometry, which were essential to early astronomy. One of the most famous Arab mathematicians was Al-Khwarizmi, who wrote a book called Al-jabr wa’l-muqabalah, which is considered to be the first book on algebra.

A table showing the influence of Arabs on mathematics in European universities:

Concept/Idea | Influence |
---|---|

Algebra | Founded algebra and originated algebraic symbols |

Arabic numerals | Introduced Hindu-Arabic numeral system |

Decimal system | Developed decimal system |

Trigonometry | Developed trigonometry |

Spherical geometry | Developed spherical geometry |

In conclusion, the Arabs had a significant impact on the development of mathematics in European universities during the Middle Ages. They introduced new concepts and ideas that served as the foundation for modern mathematics. As the mathematician and philosopher Bertrand Russell once said, “The Greeks invented geometry; Arabs invented algebra.”

## Answer in video

The city of Fes in Morocco, once the center of the Islamic world, was a world center of intellectual pursuit and creativity. Karaouine University, the oldest continuously operating university in the world, attracted scholars from both east and west 1,200 years ago. Islamic mathematicians developed algebra and trigonometry, brought the zero into modern civilization, and made extensive and highly accurate maps of the heavens while creating and refining astrolabes, sextants, water clocks, and timepieces. Two Muslim libraries held over 100,000 volumes each, while Europe’s largest library held only 5,000 books at that time.

## Online, I discovered more solutions

When I was a grad student, a very experienced math professor said, during a seminar:

“A friend of mine [also a mathematician] once dreamed he was -1 inside a square root.”

I got the impression that mathematicians’ dreams are quite complex.

## I am confident you will be intrigued

Leonardo of Pisa, better known today as Fibonacci, is largely responsible for the adoption of the Hindu–Arabic numeral system in Europe, which revolutionized not only mathematics but commerce and trade as well.

**developed the concept of irrational numbers, founded analytical geometry and established algebra and trigonometry**as exact sciences.

**algebra, number theory and number systems**, they also made considerable contributions to geometry, trigonometry and mathematical astronomy.

**to study medicine, philosophy, mathematics, cosmography and other subjects**.

**15th century**and, although we do not know exactly when their use began, we know that symbols were used at least a century before this.

**algebra, number theory and number systems**, they also made considerable contributions to geometry, trigonometry and mathematical astronomy.