# How did muslims contribute to arabic math?

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Muslim scholars made significant contributions to Arabic mathematics, including introducing the concept of zero, developing algebra and trigonometry, and advancing the study of geometry and calculus.

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Muslims have made significant contributions to the field of Arabic mathematics, which today has become an indispensable part of the global mathematical discourse. These contributions include several groundbreaking concepts and techniques that have revolutionized the way mathematics is approached today.

One of the most significant contributions made by Muslims to Arabic mathematics is the concept of zero. This idea originated in India but was adopted and further developed by Arab scholars, laying the foundations for modern arithmetic and the decimal system. As Al-Khwarizmi, the Persian mathematician and astronomer who lived in the 9th century, wrote: “The Arabic notation is superior to all other notations, and the reason is that it is the simplest and the easiest.”

In addition to the concept of zero, Muslims also made significant advances in algebra and trigonometry. Al-Khwarizmi is considered the father of algebra, having written a foundational book on the subject titled Al-Kitab al-mukhtasar fi hisab al-jabr wa’l-muqabala (The Compendious Book on Calculation by Completion and Balancing). Another significant contribution was the development of the sine and cosine functions, which are now common in trigonometry.

Muslim mathematicians also made significant advancements in the study of geometry and calculus. Notably, Alhazen (Ibn al-Haytham) developed a rigorous methodology for calculating geometric shapes, which laid the foundations for modern calculus. As the legendary mathematician Sir Isaac Newton once said, “If I have seen further than others, it is by standing upon the shoulders of giants, and among those giants were the mathematicians of the Arab-Islamic tradition.”

To appreciate the full extent of the contributions made by Muslims to Arabic mathematics, consider the following fascinating facts:

• The word “algebra” comes from the Arabic word Al-Jabr, which means “reunion of broken parts.”
• The first recorded use of the decimal system can be traced back to Indian mathematicians in the 3rd century BCE.
• The Muslim mathematician Al-Battani was the first to accurately determine the length of the solar year, an important contribution to astronomy.
• The Muslim mathematician Al-Khazini invented the first balance scale, a tool that is still used today in various forms.
• The Muslim mathematician Al-Hasan Ibn al-Haytham was the first to accurately explain how light travels and how lenses work.
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Overall, Muslims have played a vital role in advancing the field of Arabic mathematics, contributing a wealth of ideas and techniques that are still used today. Their contributions have had a profound impact on human civilization and continue to influence the world of mathematics in countless ways.

Math Concept Muslim Scholars who contributed
Algebra Al-Khwarizmi and Omar Khayyam
Trigonometry Abu al-Wafa and Al-Jayani
Geometry Alhazen (Ibn al-Haytham)
Calculus Alhazen (Ibn al-Haytham)

## Video response to “How did Muslims contribute to Arabic math?”

During the golden age of Islam in the 8th to 12th century, mathematics experienced significant advancements in the Islamic world. Muslim mathematicians widely adopted and popularized the Indian numeral system, and some of the most notable mathematicians of the time include Muhammad al-Qarismi, Abu al-Bafar al-Buzzani, and Ibrahim ibn Sinan, who made significant contributions to the development of algebra, trigonometry, and geometry. The practical applications of mathematics were also evident, as seen in calculating the direction of the qibla, which enabled Muslims to perform their daily prayers no matter where they were.

Islamic scientists in the 10th century were involved in three major mathematical projects: the completion of arithmetic algorithms, the development of algebra, and the extension of geometry.

Muslims made significant contributions to mathematics during the 7th to the 13th century, which is considered the golden age of Muslim learning. They invented the present arithmetical decimal system and the fundamental operations connected with it, including the concept of ‘zero’. They also invented algebra, made significant advances in the field of trigonometry, and fused the best of Greek mathematics with important Hindu and Persian concepts to create a mathematical structure that was far grander than what they had inherited. However, it is important to note that Muslims did not invent mathematics, which is an ancient discipline that has been around for thousands of years.

The 7th to the 13th century was the golden age of Muslim learning. In mathematics they contributed and invented the present arithmetical decimal system and the fundamental operations connected with it: addition, subtraction, multiplication, division, exponentiation, and extracting the root. They also introduced the ‘zero’ concept to the world.

Specifically, they invented the algebra that most learn in school today, made significant advances in the field of trigonometry, and helped form a synthesis of mathematical ideas, fusing the best of Greek mathematics with important Hindu and Persian concepts to create a mathematical structure that was far grander than what they had inherited.

No, Muslims did not invent mathematics. Maths is an ancient discipline that has been around for thousands of years, long before Islam and the Islamic world came about.

They built libraries.

In this way, How did Muslims contribute to mathematics?
As a response to this: Muslim mathematicians invented the present arithmetical decimal system and the fundamental operations connected with it – addition, subtraction, multiplication, division, raising to a power, and extracting the square root and the cubic root.

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Correspondingly, How did Arabs contribute to mathematics? In reply to that: So in conclusion the Arab people had a huge and lasting influence on the world of mathematics because they transported key theories of the trigonometry of the sine, the base 10 place value system, approximation of pie by the circumscription of polygons, as well as the concept of zero to Europe and also because of Al-

Similarly one may ask, What math did Muslims create? As a response to this: Islamic mathematicians quickly adopted the Indian system of numerals, which we know today as Arabic numerals. Other contributions included creating algebra, the use of decimals, mathematical induction, and trigonometry, among others.

Correspondingly, Who helped influence the mathematics of the Arabs?
Answer will be: Muhammad ibn Musa al-Khwarizmi, a Persian scholar in the House of Wisdom in Baghdad was the founder of algebra, is along with the Greek mathematician Diophantus, known as the father of algebra.

Consequently, When did Islamic mathematics start?
Islamic contributions to mathematics began around ad 825, when the Baghdad mathematician Muḥammad ibn Mūsā al-Khwārizmī wrote his famous treatise al-Kitāb al-mukhtaṣar fī ḥisāb al-jabr wa’l-muqābala (translated into Latin in the 12th century as Algebra et Almucabal, from which the modern term algebra is derived).

Moreover, What did Arabic mathematicians do? Response to this: Although the Arabic mathematicians are most famed for their work on algebra, number theory and number systems, they also made considerable contributions to geometry, trigonometry and mathematical astronomy.

Likewise, Is philosophy of mathematics an independent discipline in the medieval Islamic world?
Answer will be: Putting these scattered engagements together, it becomes clear that although philosophy of mathematics has never been treated as an independent discipline in the medieval Islamic world, Muslim thinkers came up with very interesting and profound ideas, insights, and arguments about at least some philosophical issues related to mathematics.

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Similarly one may ask, How did Muslims contribute to science?
Answer to this: Unfortunately, the contributions of Muslims often go unrecognized. Muslim scholars contributed to science in many aspects such as mathematics, astronomy, geography, philosophy, medicine, art, architecture and so on. However, today few realize that in that era Islam played an important role in all aspects of life.

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