Islam had a significant impact on the development of mathematical concepts, including algebra and trigonometry. Many important mathematicians of the Islamic Golden Age contributed to advancing mathematics and preserving the knowledge of ancient Greek mathematicians.

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Islam had a profound influence on the development of mathematics, particularly during the Islamic Golden Age, which lasted from the 8th to the 14th century. Muslim mathematicians made significant contributions to the fields of algebra, trigonometry, and geometry. They also helped to preserve and translate the works of ancient Greek mathematicians, most notably Euclid.

One of the most influential mathematicians of the Islamic Golden Age was Muhammad ibn Musa al-Khwarizmi, who is often referred to as the father of algebra. Al-Khwarizmi’s book, “Al-Kitab al-Mukhtasar fi Hisab al-Jabr wal-Muqabala,” or “The Compendious Book of Calculation by Completion and Balancing,” introduced the concepts of algebraic equations and the systematic solving of them.

Another famous mathematician of the Islamic Golden Age was Abu al-Wafa al-Buzjani, who made important contributions to trigonometry. He is best known for his book “Almagest,” which focused on spherical trigonometry and provided a basis for the study of astronomy.

The Islamic Golden Age was also notable for the establishment of centers of learning, such as the House of Wisdom in Baghdad, where scholars from all over the Islamic world converged to share and develop knowledge. These centers of learning were instrumental in the preservation and development of mathematics during this period.

In addition to their contributions to specific branches of mathematics, Muslim mathematicians also made significant advances in scientific methodology. They placed a high value on experimentation and observation, which laid the foundation for modern scientific inquiry.

As Sir Thomas Arnold, a renowned British historian, wrote in “The Legacy of Islam”: “Muslim thinkers approached mathematics in a scientific spirit. They began to look for proofs and to apply mathematics to various branches of science. They developed the beginnings of an algebraic symbolism, and were the first to use letters to represent numbers.”

Overall, the impact of Islam on mathematics was significant and far-reaching, with Muslim mathematicians laying important foundations for the development of mathematics in Europe and beyond.

Table:

Muslim Mathematicians Contributions

Muhammad ibn Musa al-Khwarizmi Father of Algebra

Abu al-Wafa al-Buzjani Contributions to Trigonometry

Al-Khwarizmi and Al-Kindi Facilitated Translation of Ancient Greek Mathematical Texts

Alhazen Contributions to Optics and Scientific Methodology

Thabit ibn Qurra Advancements in Algebra and Number Theory

Interesting Facts:

- The word algebra is derived from the Arabic word “al-jabr,” which means “reunion of broken parts.”
- Muslim mathematicians used a place-value number system, which was similar to modern decimal notation, centuries before it was adopted in the West.
- The concept of zero, which is crucial to modern mathematics, was introduced to the West by Muslim mathematicians.
- The astrolabe, a device used for solving problems related to time and the position of celestial objects, was developed by Muslim mathematicians.
- The House of Wisdom in Baghdad was a major center of learning during the Islamic Golden Age and housed one of the largest libraries in the world at the time.

## Related video

During the golden age of Islam in the 8th to 12th century, mathematics experienced significant advancements in the Islamic world. Muslim mathematicians widely adopted and popularized the Indian numeral system, and some of the most notable mathematicians of the time include Muhammad al-Qarismi, Abu al-Bafar al-Buzzani, and Ibrahim ibn Sinan, who made significant contributions to the development of algebra, trigonometry, and geometry. The practical applications of mathematics were also evident, as seen in calculating the direction of the qibla, which enabled Muslims to perform their daily prayers no matter where they were.

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Muslim mathematicians invented the present arithmetical decimal system and the fundamental operations connected with it – addition, subtraction, multiplication, division, raising to a power, and extracting the square root and the cubic root.

Specifically, they invented the algebra that most learn in school today, made significant advances in the field of trigonometry, and helped form a synthesis of mathematical ideas, fusing the best of Greek mathematics with important Hindu and Persian concepts to create a mathematical structure that was far grander than what they had inherited.

The 7th to the 13th century was the golden age of Muslim learning. In mathematics they contributed and invented the present arithmetical decimal system and the fundamental operations connected with it: addition, subtraction, multiplication, division, exponentiation, and extracting the root. They also introduced the ‘zero’ concept to the world.

Islamic scientists in the 10th century were involved in three major mathematical projects: the

completion of arithmetic algorithms, the development of algebra, and the extension of geometry.

A

systematic study of methods for solving quadratic equationsconstituted a central concern of Islamic mathematicians. A no less central contribution was related to the Islamic reception and transmission of ideas related to the Indian system of numeration, to which they added decimal fractions (fractions such as 0.125, or 1/8).

Islam made a ‘right turn’ off the intellectual highway. Rather than advancing sciences, even if those sciences led to questioning ‘fundamental beliefs’, Islam as a whole, moved into if not an anti intellectual path, at least a ‘such pursuits are needless, the truth is in belief’ path.

The ‘reasons’ such as ‘The Invasion’, or “internal Conflicts’, etc. are not very well grounded, as Europe, in the beginning of modern Science was torn apart by wars, religious differences, and wars based on those differences. One reads of cities, towns, villages laid wast, significant portions of the population subject to various reigns of terror… and if that wasn’t enough… plague and other diseases.

At the same time, Europeans increased ‘scientific discovery’, and this world colonial expansion.

The West took the texts from Muslim source, which had mostly been developed in a brief ‘flowing of intellectual development’, and ran with them, and discovered many of the concepts were from the Greek and R…

**I am sure you will be interested in these topics as well**

### What was the importance of the Islamic world to mathematics?

Response: Islamic scientists in the 10th century were involved in three major mathematical projects: *the completion of arithmetic algorithms, the development of algebra, and the extension of geometry*.

### What number did Islam contribute to the field of mathematics?

As a response to this: IN MATHEMATICS:

The Muslims developed the symbol for zero and they systematized the numbers into the decimal system – base 10.

### What is the mathematical legacy of Islam?

As a response to this: Such was the influence of this work that *the Arabic phrase al jabr in the book’s title gave rise to our modern word "algebra"*. After Al-Khwarizmi, algebra became an important part of Arabic mathematics. Arabic mathematicians learned to manipulate polynomials, to solve certain algebraic equations, and more.

### What did Muslims contribute to mathematics and astronomy?

The math required for astronomy was also advanced in large part by Islamic scholars. They developed spherical trigonometry and algebra, two forms of math fundamental to precise calculations of the stars.

### How did Islamic civilization contribute to modern mathematics?

No wonder the Islamic civilization also contributed significantly to the development of the branch of modern mathematics. In the field of geometry, an Islamic scientist name Ibn al-Haitham *developed an analytical geometry that links geometry with algebra*. In addition, he also introduced the concept of movement and transformation in geometry.

### How did Islam influence science?

The Quran and Islam allows much interpretation when it comes to science. Scientists of medieval Muslim civilization (e.g. Ibn al-Haytham) contributed to the new discoveries in science. From the eighth to fifteenth century, Muslim mathematicians and astronomers furthered the development of almost all areas of mathematics.

### Is philosophy of mathematics an independent discipline in the medieval Islamic world?

Putting these scattered engagements together, it becomes clear that although philosophy of mathematics has never been treated as an independent discipline in the medieval Islamic world, Muslim thinkers came up with very interesting and profound ideas, insights, and arguments about at least some philosophical issues related to mathematics.

### What were Islamic scientific achievements?

Islamic scientific achievements encompassed a wide range of subject areas, especially medicine, mathematics, astronomy, agriculture as well as physics, economics, engineering and optics.

### How did Islamic civilization contribute to modern mathematics?

The reply will be: No wonder the Islamic civilization also contributed significantly to the development of the branch of modern mathematics. In the field of geometry, an Islamic scientist name Ibn al-Haitham developed an analytical geometry that links geometry with algebra. In addition, he also introduced the concept of movement and transformation in geometry.

### How did Islam influence science?

Response to this: The Quran and Islam allows much interpretation when it comes to science. Scientists of medieval Muslim civilization (e.g. Ibn al-Haytham) contributed to the new discoveries in science. From the eighth to fifteenth century, Muslim mathematicians and astronomers furthered the development of almost all areas of mathematics.

### Is philosophy of mathematics an independent discipline in the medieval Islamic world?

Answer will be: Putting these scattered engagements together, it becomes clear that although philosophy of mathematics has never been treated as an independent discipline in the medieval Islamic world, Muslim thinkers came up with very interesting and profound ideas, insights, and arguments about at least some philosophical issues related to mathematics.

### What were Islamic scientific achievements?

As an answer to this: Islamic scientific achievements encompassed a wide range of subject areas, especially *medicine, mathematics, astronomy, agriculture as well as physics, economics, engineering and optics*.