Medieval Islamic civilization played a significant role in the development of mathematics, as scholars made significant advances in fields such as algebra, trigonometry, and geometry, and also preserved and translated earlier works by Greek and Indian mathematicians.

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Medieval Islamic civilization made significant contributions to the development of mathematics, particularly between the 8th and 16th centuries. Islamic scholars were able to build upon the knowledge of Greek and Indian mathematicians and made their own advancements that still influence mathematics today.

One of the greatest contributions of Islamic mathematics was the development of algebra, which is derived from the Arabic word al-jabr, meaning “reunion of broken parts.” The Persian mathematician Al-Khwarizmi is considered the father of algebra, as he wrote a book in 830 AD titled “The Compendious Book on Calculation by Completion and Balancing,” which laid out the principles of algebraic equations.

Islamic mathematicians also made significant advancements in trigonometry, as they were interested in accurately determining the direction of Mecca for prayer. One of the most influential works in this field was “Al-Zij al-Sabi,” written in the 9th century by Al-Khwarizmi’s student Habash al-Hasib al-Marwazi.

Another notable contribution of Islamic mathematics was the preservation and translation of earlier works by Greek and Indian mathematicians. This includes the works of Euclid, Archimedes, and Ptolemy, which were translated into Arabic and preserved by Islamic scholars. These works were later translated into Latin and rediscovered during the European Renaissance, leading to further advancements in mathematics.

In a quote from Carl Boyer’s “A History of Mathematics,” he states, “The Islamic heritage of mathematics was very largely that of the Greeks, but through the Arab intermediaries came something of India and much of the later work done by mathematicians of the Islamic faith cannot be attributed to any one source.”

Here is a table summarizing some of the major contributions of Islamic mathematics:

Field | Contribution | Notable Mathematician |
---|---|---|

Algebra | Development of algebraic equations | Al-Khwarizmi |

Trigonometry | Advancements in determining direction for prayer | Habash al-Hasib al-Marwazi |

Preservation | Translation and preservation of Greek and Indian works | Various Islamic scholars |

Overall, the contributions of medieval Islamic civilization to mathematics were instrumental in the development of the subject and still remain relevant today.

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Islamic scientists in the 10th century were involved in three major mathematical projects:

the completion of arithmetic algorithms, the development of algebra, and the extension of geometry.

The 7th to the 13th century was the golden age of Muslim learning. In mathematics they contributed and

invented the present arithmetical decimal systemand the fundamental operations connected with it: addition, subtraction, multiplication, division, exponentiation, and extracting the root. They also introduced the ‘zero’ concept to the world.

The most succinct way to describe the impact of Islamic mathematicians is to note that

they completely changed the "flavor" of mathematicsduring their dominance in the field. One example of this is the change from the largely geometric formulations of the Greeks to the largely symbolic formulations that we use today.

Islamic mathematicians gathered, organised and clarified the mathematics they inherited from ancient Egypt, Greece, India, Mesopotamia and Persia, and went on to make innovations of their own. Islamic mathematics covered algebra, geometry and arithme

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## Interesting facts on the topic

**You knew that,**Islamic mathematicians translated virtually every surviving Greek text on mathematics and they were certainly aware of the Greek discoveries and formulations of problems. In fact, the earliest Muslim text describing algebra describes problems that could only have been translated from the Greeks. Al-Daffa, A.A. The Muslim Contribution to Mathematics. Maor, Eli.