# Immediate reaction to – how did Egyptians use mathematics?

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The Egyptians used mathematics for a variety of purposes, including measuring land, constructing buildings, and calculating taxes. They developed a system of hieroglyphic numerals and had knowledge of geometry and fractions.

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The Egyptians were accomplished mathematicians and used their knowledge in various fields, such as engineering, architecture, medicine, astronomy, and commerce. They had a sophisticated understanding of numbers and used a hieroglyphic numeral system, which was a unique way of expressing whole numbers, fractions, and decimals. The Egyptians used mathematics for practical purposes such as measuring land, building structures, and calculating taxes.

One of the most fascinating aspects of Egyptian mathematics is their understanding of geometry. They studied the properties of shapes and used them to design and construct buildings, including pyramids and temples. They also applied their knowledge of geometry to surveying land and constructing irrigation systems. The Rhind Mathematical Papyrus, which is an ancient Egyptian mathematical text, contains a collection of mathematical problems that demonstrate their proficiency in this field.

The Egyptians also had a deep understanding of fractions, which was useful for commerce and trade. They used unit fractions, which are fractions with a numerator of one, to perform operations such as addition, subtraction, and multiplication. This allowed them to perform complex calculations, including division, without the need for a symbol for zero.

The following table summarizes some of the key contributions of the ancient Egyptians to mathematics:

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Field Contributions
Arithmetic Hieroglyphic numerals, addition, subtraction, multiplication, division, fractions
Geometry Properties of shapes, measurement, surveying, construction
Astronomy Observations, calendar, prediction of celestial events
Medicine Measurements, prescriptions, surgical procedures
Commerce Accounting, fractions, measurement

As the famous historian Morris Kline once said, “The ancient Egyptians were superb mathematicians. One evidence of this is their clear understanding and use of the two basic operations of arithmetic, addition and multiplication, and their ability to perform calculations with fractions that required a return to elementary arithmetic”.

In conclusion, the ancient Egyptians used mathematics extensively in various aspects of their daily lives, including business, construction, and religious ceremonies. Their mathematical knowledge was impressive and far ahead of their time, and their discoveries continue to influence modern mathematics to this day.

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The use of mathematics in ancient Egypt was crucial for building structures like the pyramids and for keeping track of business transactions using a decimal system that only used numbers for multiples of 10. Writing numbers like 3 and 40 in this system required jotting down specific numbers of ones and tens. The symbol for one million was represented by a picture of a god with outstretched arms.

## Further responses to your query

The ancient Egyptians utilized a numeral system for counting and solving written mathematical problems, often involving multiplication and fractions. Evidence for Egyptian mathematics is limited to a scarce amount of surviving sources written on papyrus.

The ancient Egyptians contributed to the development of modern mathematics. They used a base 10 numbering system and a system of hieroglyphics to represent numbers. They were also the first people to develop a numerical notation and created a variety of mathematical tools. The Egyptian mathematicians understood a little algebra and were capable of solving linear equations, and could solve simple quadratic equations by using a series of guesses to find the closest answer.

The ancient Egyptians contributed to the development of modern mathematics. They conceived the first number system in history. In addition, they used a number system to store their knowledge. The Egyptians were also the first people to develop a numerical notation. They set the number system and created a variety of mathematical tools.

Ancient Egyptian mathematics is the mathematics that was developed and used in Ancient Egypt c. 3000 to c. 300 BCE, from the Old Kingdom of Egypt until roughly the beginning of Hellenistic Egypt. The ancient Egyptians utilized a numeral system for counting and solving written mathematical problems, often involving multiplication and fractions.

Some of the key contributions of Egyptian mathematics include:

The Egyptian mathematicians understood a little algebra and were capable of solving linear equations, and could solve simple quadratic equations by using a series of guesses to find the closest answer, a brute force method that was used for many centuries afterwards.

From: egypt.mrdonn.org

“They made great contributions to modern mathematics. They discovered decimals, fractions, the number zero, negative numbers and even the value of Pi.“

The Egyptian were the first to develop a system of math based on ten. The below is a chart of what Egyptian mathematics numbers looked like and the symbols meaning.

## Surely you will be interested in these topics

### How did Egyptians use math to build pyramids?

Most Egyptologists believe that the pyramids were built using the Egyptian royal cubit measurement, where a royal cubit = 7 palms and 1 palm = 4 digits (fingers) and which may measure 523.55 mm.

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### Why did the ancient Egyptians first use math and geometry?

Answer will be: Egyptian geometry refers to geometry as it was developed and used in Ancient Egypt. Their geometry was a necessary outgrowth of surveying to preserve the layout and ownership of farmland, which was flooded annually by the Nile river.

### How did ancient Egyptians use science and math?

They devised a system of weights to help in the sale of products. Angles of pyramids and volume of columns were calculated with great accuracy. In addition, they knew how to calculate the area of squares, rectangles, and circles. Just as we do, ancient Egyptians divided circles into three hundred and sixty degrees.

### What is the math behind the pyramids?

Response will be: The theory is that the Great Pyramid is based on the application of a gradient of 5.5 sekeds. This measure means that for a pyramid height of 1 cubit, which is 7 palms, its base would be 5.5 palms. The ratio of height to base then is 7 divided by 5.5, which is 1.2727.

### What is ancient Egyptian mathematics?

The reply will be: Ancient Egyptian mathematics is the mathematics that was developed and used in Ancient Egypt c. 3000 to c. 300 BCE, from the Old Kingdom of Egypt until roughly the beginning of Hellenistic Egypt. The ancient Egyptians utilized a numeral system for counting and solving written mathematical problems, often involving multiplication and fractions.

### How did ancient Egypt develop geometry?

Response: They also attribute the development of geometry to the Egyptians, pointing out that circle and rectangle areas are the same. The ancient Egyptians also developed a system of weights. The ancient Egyptians understood volume and geometry and created the first irrigation system. The Egyptians also cultivated crops using a plow drawn by an ox.

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### What did ancient Egyptians use to calculate fractions?

The response is: An aspect of Egyptian mathematics that has fascinated historians of mathematics is the Egyp-tian method of fraction reckoning. Expressed in modern mathematical terminology, ancient Egyptian mathematics used only unit fractions, with the only exception being the fraction 3 2.

### How did ancient Egyptians learn numbers?

Answer: The ancient Egyptians had a sophisticated understanding of numbers, and their earliest written language is still a testament to their knowledge of the subject. The Egyptians developed a complex system of fractions. They developed numerals based on the symbol Eye of Horus.

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