The Riemann hypothesis and the Birch and Swinnerton-Dyer conjecture are among the unsolved math problems in physics.

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One of the most intriguing intersections between math and physics is the existence of unsolved math problems that have significant implications for physics. While many math problems have been solved and proven to have applications in physics, some still remain unsolved, even after centuries of study.

One such problem is the Riemann hypothesis, named after 19th-century mathematician Bernhard Riemann. According to the hypothesis, every nontrivial solution to the equation ζ(s) = 0 (where ζ is the Riemann zeta function and s is a complex number) lies on the critical line s = 1/2. The Riemann hypothesis has far-reaching implications in the field of number theory and could potentially influence the way we approach encryption and number-based security in the future.

Another unsolved math problem with implications for physics is the Birch and Swinnerton-Dyer conjecture. This conjecture deals with the mathematical properties of elliptic curves, a class of mathematical objects that are used to describe certain phenomena in theoretical physics, including string theory and quantum field theory. The conjecture proposes that there is a deep connection between the arithmetic properties of elliptic curves and the behavior of corresponding L-functions. The conjecture also has implications for cryptography and could lead to advances in data security.

“Mathematics is not a careful march down a well-cleared highway, but a journey into a strange wilderness, where the explorers often get lost.” – W. S. Anglin

Other math problems that are unsolved but have potential connections to physics include the Hodge conjecture, the Navier-Stokes equation, and the Yang-Mills existence and mass gap problem. Despite the challenges posed by these problems, the interconnectedness between math and physics has led many researchers to continue exploring these mysteries.

Math Problem | Implications for Physics | Other Applications |
---|---|---|

Riemann Hypothesis | Impacts number theory and encryption | Could have practical applications in cybersecurity |

Birch and Swinnerton-Dyer Conjecture | Connections with elliptic curves in theoretical physics | Potential applications in cryptography and data security |

Hodge Conjecture | May have applications in string theory | Could lead to advances in algebraic geometry |

Navier-Stokes Equation | Describes fluid dynamics | Impacts fields such as aeronautical engineering and meteorology |

Yang-Mills Existence and Mass Gap | Could provide insight into the behavior of particles and forces in physics | Impacts the understanding of quantum field theory and gauge theory |

## See related video

The “4 Weird Unsolved Mysteries of Math” video has presented four intriguing mathematical problems that have yet to be solved, starting with the Moving Sofa Problem, which focuses on finding the largest sofa that can be turned around a 90-degree corner without lifting it. The video also mentioned the Worm Problem or the Mother Worm’s Blanket, which involves finding the smallest blanket that can cover a sleeping baby worm in any position. Another problem is the shortest forest path, which aims to find the shortest path out of a specific shape of the forest, while the Magic Square of Squares problem is to find a functional 3×3 magic square made solely of square numbers. Despite the endless efforts of scientists and mathematicians alike, these challenges still remain unresolved, and many believe that they may never be solved in the future.

## There are other opinions on the Internet

The problems consist of the Riemann hypothesis, Poincaré conjecture, Hodge conjecture, Swinnerton-Dyer Conjecture, solution of the Navier-Stokes equations, formulation of Yang-Mills theory, and determination of whether NP-problems are actually P-problems.

The remaining six

unsolvedproblemsare the Birch and Swinnerton-Dyer conjecture, Hodge conjecture, Navier–Stokes existence and smoothness, P versus NP problem, Riemann hypothesis, and Yang–Mills existence and mass gap.

The 4

unsolvedproblemsare [ 4 ]: H6Mathematicaltreatment of the axioms ofphysics. H8 The Riemann hypothesis. H12 Extend the Kronecker–Weber theorem on abelian extensions of the rational numbers to any base number field.

You could start with Michael Aizenman’s list of a dozen specific problems from a variety of areas of mathematical physics. The list is two decades old, but most of these problems are still wide open. Fifteen problems in the field of Schrödinger operators are in Barry Simon’s list, (1984), with a more recent update (2000).

## Moreover, people are interested

In this way, **What are the major unsolved problems in physics?** As a response to this: Size of universe: The diameter of the observable universe is about 93 billion light-years, but what is the size of the whole universe? Baryon asymmetry: Why is there far more matter than antimatter in the observable universe? (This may be solved due to the apparent asymmetry in neutrino-antineutrino oscillations.)

Similar

Beside this, **What are the 7 biggest unanswered questions in physics?** As a response to this: plications” with a brief explanation/justification.

- 1 Quantum Gravity. The biggest unsolved problem in fundamental physics is how gravity and the.
- 2 Particle Masses.
- 3 The “Measurement” Problem.
- 4 Turbulence.
- 5 Dark Energy.
- 6 Dark Matter.
- 7 Complexity.
- 8 The Matter-Antimatter Asymmetry.

In this way, **What are the 7 unsolved math problems?** Answer will be: The seven problems are the Birch and Swinnerton-Dyer Conjecture, the Hodge Conjecture, the Navier-Stokes Equations, P versus NP, the Poincaré Conjecture, the Riemann Hypothesis, and the Yang-Mills Theory. In 2003, the Poincaré Conjecture was proven by Russian mathematician Grigori Perelman.

Regarding this, **What is the hardest math in physics?**

Response to this: Yet only one set of equations is considered so mathematically challenging that it’s been chosen as one of seven “Millennium Prize Problems” endowed by the Clay Mathematics Institute with a $1 million reward: the Navier-Stokes equations, which describe how fluids flow.

Correspondingly, **What are some unsolved problems in mathematics?**

More on lists There are many lists of unsolved problems in mathematics (see, for example, [ 23, 24 ]). These include many problems in applied mathematics (and hence mathematical physics), some of which have been discussed above (the regularity of the Navier–Stokes and Yang–Mills equations, and problems on turbulence).

Then, **Which physics problems are in pure mathematics?** As an answer to this: The majority of these problems are in pure mathematics; only H19–H23 are of direct interest to physicists. The Riemann hypothesis (H8), and H12 and H16 are problems in pure mathematics in the areas of number theory and algebra (and H16 is unresolved even for algebraic curves of degree 8).

Just so, **What problems are unsolved in space physics?**

Alfvénic turbulence: In the solar wind and the turbulence in solar flares, coronal mass ejections, and magnetospheric substorms are major unsolved problems in space plasma physics. Stochasticity and robustness to noise in gene expression: How do genes govern our body, withstanding different external pressures and internal stochasticity?

**What are some recent links between mathematics and physics?**

Response will be: Some recent links between mathematics and physics Number theory and physics Conjectured links between the Riemann zeta function and chaotic quantum-mechanical systems Deep and relatively recent ideas in mathematics and physics Standard model and mathematics: Gauge field or connection

**What are some unsolved problems in mathematics?**

More on lists There are many lists of unsolved problems in mathematics (see, for example, [ 23, 24 ]). These include many problems in applied mathematics (and hence mathematical physics), some of which have been discussed above (the regularity of the Navier–Stokes and Yang–Mills equations, and problems on turbulence).

Herein, **Which physics problems are in pure mathematics?**

Answer will be: The majority of these problems are in pure mathematics; only H19–H23 are of direct interest to physicists. The Riemann hypothesis (H8), and H12 and H16 are problems in pure mathematics in the areas of number theory and algebra (and H16 is unresolved even for algebraic curves of degree 8).

Herein, **What problems are unsolved in space physics?**

Alfvénic turbulence: In the solar wind and the turbulence in solar flares, coronal mass ejections, and magnetospheric substorms are major unsolved problems in space plasma physics. Stochasticity and robustness to noise in gene expression: How do genes govern our body, withstanding different external pressures and internal stochasticity?

**What are some recent links between mathematics and physics?** Answer will be: Some recent links between mathematics and physics Number theory and physics Conjectured links between the Riemann zeta function and chaotic quantum-mechanical systems Deep and relatively recent ideas in mathematics and physics Standard model and mathematics: Gauge field or connection