The concept of numbers is believed to be the first mathematical object.

## Detailed response

Numbers are widely recognized as the first mathematical object. They are the foundation of all mathematical concepts and operations, laying the groundwork for more complex mathematical concepts to be developed. As Plato famously stated, “At the root of all inquiry is the assumption that the world is orderly and can be explained by a small number of natural laws.” And these laws are inherently rooted in numbers.

Interesting facts about the concept of numbers include:

- The concept of counting is believed to have originated in prehistoric times, with ancient humans using tally marks and other primitive counting methods to keep track of resources, such as food and livestock.
- The earliest written evidence of numbers can be traced back to around 3000 BCE in ancient Sumeria, where cuneiform tablets were used to record numerical data.
- The ancient Babylonians were the first to develop a positional numbering system, which laid the foundation for the modern decimal system.
- The Greek philosopher Pythagoras believed that numbers held mystical properties and that they were the building blocks of the universe.
- The concept of negative numbers was not formally recognized until the 17th century, and the concept of imaginary numbers was not introduced until the 16th century.
- In modern mathematics, numbers are classified into different types, including natural numbers, integers, rationals, irrationals, and complex numbers.

Here is a table showcasing the different types of numbers:

Type of Number | Definition | Examples |
---|---|---|

Natural Numbers | Positive integers that are used for counting | 1, 2, 3, 4, 5… |

Integers | Whole numbers (positive, negative, or zero) | -3, -2, -1, 0, 1, 2, 3… |

Rationals | Numbers that can be expressed as a ratio of two integers | 1/2, 2/3, -3/4… |

Irrationals | Numbers that cannot be expressed as a ratio of two integers | pi, e, the square root of 2… |

Complex Numbers | Numbers that consist of a real part and an imaginary part | 3 + 4i, -2 – i… |

In conclusion, the concept of numbers has played a pivotal role in the development of mathematics and human civilization as a whole. As Galileo Galilei once stated, “Mathematics is the language in which God has written the universe.” And at the heart of this language lies the concept of numbers.

**Watch related video**

This video discusses the debate between those who believe that mathematics is discovered, and those who believe that it is invented. The video provides examples of how mathematics has been used to solve problems in the real world.

## Additional responses to your query

The Lebombo bone: oldest mathematical artifact The Lebombo bone (top) is the oldest known mathematical artifact. It is a tally stick with 29 distinct notches that were deliberately cut into a baboon’s fibula. It was discovered within the Border Cave in the Lebombo Mountains of Eswatini.

In mathematics, a Möbius strip, Möbius band, or Möbius loop [a] is a surface that can be formed by attaching the ends of a strip of paper together with a half-twist. As a mathematical object, it was discovered by Johann Benedict Listing and August Ferdinand Möbius in 1858, but it had already appeared in Roman mosaics from the third century CE.

I believe that the majority of mathematicians would take this view :

A mathematical object is a set of abstract entities together with the relationships between them. According to this view, the word property is synonymous with relation.

For example, the set of integers is a mathematical object. The only properties of integers are those present in the relations between them.

We do not invent mathematical objects, we only invent the notations we use to identify them and study their properties. Key to this view is that mathematical objects are identified and defined by humans in a purely abstract way, without any human baggage.

There are many philosophical objections to this view.

Deductive reasoning is not, as you suggest, a property of mathematics. It is a method humans use to explore the properties of mathematical objects. Logic and mathematics are not the same thing.

**Interesting Facts**

**Did you know:**The first period of the history of mathematics was the Ancient Greek period, which began around 900 BC and ended around 300 BC. This is where we see the development of geometry, number theory, and algebra. The second period of the history of mathematics was the medieval era, which began around 700 AD and ended around 1600 AD.

**Did you know:**The second period of the history of mathematics was the medieval era, which began around 700 AD and ended around 1600 AD. This is where we see developments in algebraic geometry, analytic geometry, trigonometry, calculus, and infinitesimal calculus.

**And did you know:**The third period of the history of mathematics was called the Renaissance Period which began in 14th century Italy as a cultural movement. It lasted until 17th century France when it had to come to an end due to religious The Golden Age of Mathematics

## I am sure you will be interested in these topics as well

### What is the oldest mathematical object?

The response is: This Ishango bone is old, but the oldest "mathematical artifact" currently known is much older. The oldest is a piece of baboon fibula with 29 notches, dated 35,000 BC. This older bone was discovered in the mountains between South Africa and Swaziland.

### What is the world’s first mathematical tool?

the Ishango Bone

Perhaps the oldest mathematical artifact in existence, the *Ishango Bone* (above), was unearthed in 1950 in the then Belgian colony of the Congo (now the Democratic Republic of Congo).

### What is the oldest evidence of math?

As an answer to this: The earliest form of mathematics that we know is counting, as our ancestors worked to keep track of how many of various things they had. The earliest evidence of counting we have is a prehistoric bone on which have been marked some tallies, which sometimes appear to be in groups of five.

### How old is the Lebombo bone?

Response will be: between 44,200 and 43,000 years old

The bone is *between 44,200 and 43,000 years old*, according to 24 radiocarbon datings. This is far older than the Ishango bone with which it is sometimes confused. Other notched bones are 80,000 years old but it is unclear if the notches are merely decorative or if they bear a functional meaning.

### When did mathematics become an invention?

However, there is a history of mathematics, a relationship between mathematics and inventions and mathematical instruments themselves are considered inventions. According to the book "Mathematical Thought from Ancient to Modern Times," mathematics as an organized science did not exist until the classical Greek period from *600 to 300 B.C.*

### Where is the oldest mathematical object?

Answer will be: "The Oldest Mathematical Object is in Swaziland". Mathematicians of the African Diaspora. SUNY Buffalo mathematics department. Retrieved 2006-05-06. ^ Marshack, Alexander (1991): The Roots of Civilization, Colonial Hill, Mount Kisco, NY. ^ Rudman, Peter Strom (2007). How Mathematics Happened: The First 50,000 Years. Prometheus Books. p. 64.

### What are some examples of mathematical objects?

Response to this: Commonly encountered mathematical objects include numbers, sets, functions, expressions, geometric objects, transformations of other mathematical objects, and spaces. Mathematical objects can be very complex; for example, theorems, proofs, and even theories are considered as mathematical objects in proof theory .

### Where can I find a history of mathematics?

In reply to that: The Story of Maths. MacTutor History of Mathematics archive (John J. O’Connor and Edmund F. Robertson; University of St Andrews, Scotland). An award-winning website containing detailed biographies on many historical and contemporary mathematicians, as well as information on notable curves and various topics in the history of mathematics.